syntaxtree.py 41.1 KB
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# syntaxtree.py - syntax tree classes for DHParser
#
# Copyright 2016  by Eckhart Arnold (arnold@badw.de)
#                 Bavarian Academy of Sciences an Humanities (badw.de)
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
# implied.  See the License for the specific language governing
# permissions and limitations under the License.
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"""
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Module ``syntaxtree`` defines the ``Node``-class for syntax trees as well
as an abstract base class for parser-objects. The latter is defined
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here, because node-objects refer to parser-objects. All concrete
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parser classes are defined in the ``parse`` module.
"""

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import collections.abc
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from collections import OrderedDict
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import copy
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from DHParser.error import Error, ErrorCode, linebreaks, line_col
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from DHParser.stringview import StringView
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from DHParser.toolkit import re, typing
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from typing import Callable, cast, Iterator, List, AbstractSet, Set, Dict, Union, Tuple, Optional
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__all__ = ('ParserBase',
           'WHITESPACE_PTYPE',
           'TOKEN_PTYPE',
           'MockParser',
           'ZombieParser',
           'ZOMBIE_PARSER',
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           'ZOMBIE_NODE',
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           'Node',
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           'RootNode',
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           'ZOMBIE_ROOTNODE',
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           'parse_sxpr',
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           'parse_xml',
           'flatten_sxpr',
           'flatten_xml')
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#######################################################################
#
# parser base and mock parsers
#
#######################################################################


class ParserBase:
    """
    ParserBase is the base class for all real and mock parser classes.
    It is defined here, because Node objects require a parser object
    for instantiation.
    """
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    __slots__ = 'name', 'ptype'
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    def __init__(self,):  # , pbases=frozenset()):
        self.name = ''  # type: str
        self.ptype = ':' + self.__class__.__name__  # type: str
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    def __repr__(self):
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        return self.name + self.ptype
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    def __str__(self):
        return self.name + (' = ' if self.name else '') + repr(self)

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    def __call__(self, text: StringView) -> Tuple[Optional['Node'], StringView]:
        return None, text

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    @property
    def repr(self) -> str:
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        """Returns the parser's name if it has a name and repr()"""
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        return self.name if self.name else repr(self)

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    def reset(self):
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        """Resets any parser variables. (Should be overridden.)"""
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        pass

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    def grammar(self) -> Optional[object]:
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        """Returns the Grammar object to which the parser belongs. If not
        yet connected to any Grammar object, None is returned."""
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        return None

    def apply(self, func: Callable) -> bool:
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        """Applies the function `func` to the parser. Returns False, if
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        - for whatever reason - the functions has not been applied, True
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        otherwise."""
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        return False

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WHITESPACE_PTYPE = ':Whitespace'
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TOKEN_PTYPE = ':Token'
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class MockParser(ParserBase):
    """
    MockParser objects can be used to reconstruct syntax trees from a
    serialized form like S-expressions or XML. Mock objects can mimic
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    different parser types by assigning them a `ptype` on initialization.
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    Mock objects should not be used for anything other than
    syntax tree (re-)construction. In all other cases where a parser
    object substitute is needed, chose the singleton ZOMBIE_PARSER.
    """
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    __slots__ = ()

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    def __init__(self, name='', ptype=''):  # , pbases=frozenset()):
        assert not ptype or ptype[0] == ':'
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        super().__init__()
        self.name = name
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        if ptype:
            self.ptype = ptype  # or ':' + self.__class__.__name__
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class ZombieParser(MockParser):
    """
    Serves as a substitute for a Parser instance.

    ``ZombieParser`` is the class of the singelton object
    ``ZOMBIE_PARSER``. The  ``ZOMBIE_PARSER`` has a name and can be
    called, but it never matches. It serves as a substitute where only
    these (or one of these properties) is needed, but no real Parser-
    object is instantiated.
    """
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    alive = False
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    __slots__ = ()
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    def __init__(self):
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        super(ZombieParser, self).__init__()
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        assert not self.__class__.alive, "There can be only one!"
        assert self.__class__ == ZombieParser, "No derivatives, please!"
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        self.name = "__ZOMBIE__"
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        self.__class__.alive = True

    def __copy__(self):
        return self

    def __deepcopy__(self, memo):
        return self

    def __call__(self, text):
        """Better call Saul ;-)"""
        return None, text


ZOMBIE_PARSER = ZombieParser()


#######################################################################
#
# syntaxtree nodes
#
#######################################################################


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ChildrenType = Tuple['Node', ...]
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NoChildren = cast(ChildrenType, ())  # type: ChildrenType
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StrictResultType = Union[ChildrenType, StringView, str]
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ResultType = Union[ChildrenType, 'Node', StringView, str, None]
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def flatten_sxpr(sxpr: str) -> str:
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    """
    Returns S-expression ``sxpr`` as a one-liner without unnecessary
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    whitespace.

    Example:
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    >>> flatten_sxpr('(a\\n    (b\\n        c\\n    )\\n)\\n')
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    '(a (b c))'
    """
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    return re.sub(r'\s(?=\))', '', re.sub(r'\s+', ' ', sxpr)).strip()
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def flatten_xml(xml: str) -> str:
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    """
    Returns an XML-tree as a one liner without unnecessary whitespace,
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    i.e. only whitespace within leaf-nodes is preserved.
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    A more precise alternative to `flatten_xml` is to use Node.as_xml()
    ans passing a set containing the top level tag to parameter `inline_tags`.
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    """
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    # works only with regex
    # return re.sub(r'\s+(?=<\w)', '', re.sub(r'(?<=</\w+>)\s+', '', xml))
    def tag_only(m):
        return m.groupdict()['closing_tag']
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    return re.sub(r'\s+(?=<[\w:])', '', re.sub(r'(?P<closing_tag></:?\w+>)\s+', tag_only, xml))
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RX_AMP = re.compile(r'&(?!\w+;)')
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class Node(collections.abc.Sized):
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    """
    Represents a node in the concrete or abstract syntax tree.

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    TODO: Add some documentation and doc-tests here...

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    Attributes:
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        tag_name (str):  The name of the node, which is either its
            parser's name or, if that is empty, the parser's class name
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        result (str or tuple):  The result of the parser which
            generated this node, which can be either a string or a
            tuple of child nodes.
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        children (tuple):  The tuple of child nodes or an empty tuple
            if there are no child nodes. READ ONLY!
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        content (str):  Yields the contents of the tree as string. The
            difference to ``str(node)`` is that ``node.content`` does
            not add the error messages to the returned string.

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        parser (Parser):  The parser which generated this node.
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            WARNING: In case you use mock syntax trees for testing or
            parser replacement during the AST-transformation: DO NOT
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            rely on this being a real parser object in any phase after
            parsing (i.e. AST-transformation and compiling), for
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            example by calling ``isinstance(node.parer, ...)``.
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        len (int):  The full length of the node's string result if the
            node is a leaf node or, otherwise, the concatenated string
            result's of its descendants. The figure always represents
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            the length before AST-transformation and will never change
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            through AST-transformation. READ ONLY!
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        pos (int):  the position of the node within the parsed text.

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            The value of ``pos`` is -1 meaning invalid by default.
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            Setting this value will set the positions of all child
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            nodes relative to this value.
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            To set the pos values of all nodes in a syntax tree, the
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            pos value of the root node should be set to 0 right
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            after parsing.

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            Other than that, this value should be considered READ ONLY.
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            At any rate, it should only be reassigned during the parsing
            stage and never during or after the AST-transformation.
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        errors (list):  A list of all errors that occured on this node.

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        attr (dict): An optional dictionary of XML-attr. This
            dictionary is created lazily upon first usage. The attr
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            will only be shown in the XML-Representation, not in the
            S-Expression-output.
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    """
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    __slots__ = '_result', 'children', '_len', '_pos', 'parser', 'errors', '_xml_attr', '_content'
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    def __init__(self, parser, result: ResultType, leafhint: bool = False) -> None:
        """
        Initializes the ``Node``-object with the ``Parser``-Instance
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        that generated the node and the parser's result.
        """
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        self.errors = []                # type: List[Error]
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        self._pos = -1                  # type: int
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        # Assignment to self.result initializes the attr _result, children and _len
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        # The following if-clause is merely an optimization, i.e. a fast-path for leaf-Nodes
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        if leafhint:
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            self._result = result       # type: StrictResultType  # cast(StrictResultType, result)
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            self._content = None        # type: Optional[str]
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            self.children = NoChildren  # type: ChildrenType
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            self._len = -1              # type: int  # lazy evaluation
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        else:
            self.result = result
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        self.parser = parser or ZOMBIE_PARSER

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    def __deepcopy__(self, memo):
        if self.children:
            duplicate = self.__class__(self.parser, copy.deepcopy(self.children), False)
        else:
            duplicate = self.__class__(self.parser, self.result, True)
        duplicate.errors = copy.deepcopy(self.errors) if self.errors else []
        duplicate._pos = self._pos
        duplicate._len = self._len
        if hasattr(self, '_xml_attr'):
            duplicate._xml_attr = copy.deepcopy(self._xml_attr)
        return duplicate
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    def __str__(self):
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        s = "".join(str(child) for child in self.children) if self.children else self.content
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        if self.errors:
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            return ' <<< Error on "%s" | %s >>> ' % \
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                   (s, '; '.join(e.message for e in self.errors))
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        return s
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    def __repr__(self):
        mpargs = {'name': self.parser.name, 'ptype': self.parser.ptype}
        parg = "MockParser({name}, {ptype})".format(**mpargs)
        rarg = str(self) if not self.children else \
               "(" + ", ".join(repr(child) for child in self.children) + ")"
        return "Node(%s, %s)" % (parg, rarg)
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    def __len__(self):
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        if self._len < 0:
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            self._len = sum(len(child) for child in self.children) \
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                if self.children else len(self._result)
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        return self._len


    def __bool__(self):
        # A node that is not None is always True, even if it's empty
        return True


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    def __eq__(self, other):
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        """
        Equality of nodes: Two nodes are considered as equal, if their tag
        name is the same and if their results are equal.
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        Note: It is not required that two nodes have the same errors attached.
        In case you need to check for error equality as well, compare a
        serialization that includes error messages, as_sxpr() will do!
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        """
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        return self.tag_name == other.tag_name and self.result == other.result
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    def __hash__(self):
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        return hash(self.tag_name)
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    def __getitem__(self, index_or_tagname: Union[int, str]) -> Union['Node', Iterator['Node']]:
        """
        Returns the child node with the given index if ``index_or_tagname`` is
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        an integer or the first child node with the given tag name. Examples::
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            >>> tree = parse_sxpr('(a (b "X") (X (c "d")) (e (X "F")))')
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            >>> flatten_sxpr(tree[0].as_sxpr())
            '(b "X")'
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            >>> flatten_sxpr(tree["X"].as_sxpr())
            '(X (c "d"))'
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        Args:
            index_or_tagname(str): Either an index of a child node or a
                tag name.
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        Returns:
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            Node: All nodes which have a given tag name.
        """
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        if self.children:
            if isinstance(index_or_tagname, int):
                return self.children[index_or_tagname]
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            else:
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                for child in self.children:
                    if child.tag_name == index_or_tagname:
                        return child
                raise KeyError(index_or_tagname)
        raise ValueError('Leave nodes have no children that can be indexed!')
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    def __contains__(self, tag_name: str) -> bool:
        """
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        Returns true if a child with the given tag name exists.
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        Args:
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            tag_name (str): tag_name which will be searched among to immediate
                descendants of this node.
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        Returns:
            bool:  True, if at least one descendant node with the given tag
                name exists, False otherwise
        """
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        # assert isinstance(tag_name, str)
        if self.children:
            for child in self.children:
                if child.tag_name == tag_name:
                    return True
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            return False
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        raise ValueError('Leave node cannot contain other nodes')
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    def get(self, index_or_tagname: Union[int, str],
            surrogate: Union['Node', Iterator['Node']]) -> Union['Node', Iterator['Node']]:
        """Returns the child node with the given index if ``index_or_tagname``
        is an integer or the first child node with the given tag name. If no
        child with the given index or tag_name exists, the ``surrogate`` is
        returned instead. This mimics the behaviour of Python's dictionary's
        get-method.
        """
        try:
            return self[index_or_tagname]
        except KeyError:
            return surrogate


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    @property   # this needs to be a (dynamic) property, in case sef.parser gets updated
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    def tag_name(self) -> str:
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        """
        Returns the tage name of Node, i.e. the name for XML or
        S-expression representation. By default the tag name is the
        name of the node's parser or, if the node's parser is unnamed, the
        node's parser's `ptype`.
        """
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        return self.parser.name or self.parser.ptype
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    @property
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    def result(self) -> StrictResultType:
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        """
        Returns the result from the parser that created the node.
        Error messages are not included in the result. Use `self.content()`
        if the result plus any error messages is needed.
        """
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        return self._result

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    @result.setter
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    def result(self, result: ResultType):
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        # # made obsolete by static type checking with mypy
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        # assert ((isinstance(result, tuple) and all(isinstance(child, Node) for child in result))
        #         or isinstance(result, Node)
        #         or isinstance(result, str)), str(result)
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        # Possible optimization: Do not allow single nodes as argument:
        # assert not isinstance(result, Node)
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        self._len = -1        # lazy evaluation
        self._content = None
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        if isinstance(result, Node):
            self.children = (result,)
            self._result = self.children
        else:
            if isinstance(result, tuple):
                self.children = result
                self._result = result or ''
            else:
                self.children = NoChildren
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                self._result = result  # cast(StrictResultType, result)
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    @property
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    def content(self) -> str:
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        """
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        Returns content as string, omitting error messages. If the node has
        child-nodes, the string content of the child-nodes is recursively read
        and then concatenated.
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        """
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        if self._content is None:
            if self.children:
                self._content = "".join(child.content for child in self.children)
            else:
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                # self._content = self._result
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                self._content = str(self._result)
                self._result = self._content  # self._result might be more efficient as a string!?
        return self._content
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    @content.setter
    def content(self, content: str):
        self.result = content


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    @property
    def structure(self) -> str:
        """
        Return structure (and content) as S-expression on a single line
        without any line breaks.
        """
        return flatten_sxpr(self.as_sxpr(showerrors=False))


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    @property
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    def pos(self) -> int:
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        """Returns the position of the Node's content in the source text."""
        if self._pos < 0:
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            raise AssertionError("Position value not initialized!")
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        return self._pos

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    def init_pos(self, pos: int) -> 'Node':
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        """
        (Re-)initialize position value. Usually, the parser guard
        (`parsers.add_parser_guard()`) takes care of assigning the
        position in the document to newly created nodes. However,
        where Nodes are created outside the reach of the parser
        guard, their document-position must be assigned manually.
        This function recursively reassigns the position values
        of the child nodes, too.
        """
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        assert self._pos < 0 or self.pos == pos, str("pos mismatch %i != %i" % (self._pos, pos))
        self._pos = pos
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        # recursively adjust pos-values of all children
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        offset = self.pos
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        for child in self.children:
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            child.init_pos(offset)
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            offset = child.pos + len(child)
        return self

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    @property
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    def attr(self):
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        """
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        Returns a dictionary of XML-attr attached to the node.
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        """
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        if not hasattr(self, '_xml_attr'):
            self._xml_attr = OrderedDict()
        return self._xml_attr

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    def _tree_repr(self, tab, open_fn, close_fn, data_fn=lambda i: i,
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                   density=0, inline=False, inline_fn=lambda node: False) -> str:
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        """
        Generates a tree representation of this node and its children
        in string from.

        The kind ot tree-representation that is determined by several
        function parameters. This could be an XML-representation or a
        lisp-like S-expression.

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        Args:
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            tab (str):  The indentation string, e.g. '\t' or '    '
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            open_fn:   (Node->str) A function that returns an opening
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                string (e.g. an XML-tag_name) for a given node
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            close_fn:  (Node->str) A function that returns a closeF
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                string (e.g. an XML-tag_name) for a given node.
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            data_fn:   (str->str) A function that filters the data string
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                before printing, e.g. to add quotation marks

        Returns (str):
            A string that contains a (serialized) tree representation
            of the node and its children.
        """
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        head = open_fn(self)
        tail = close_fn(self)
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        if not self.result:
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            return head.rstrip() + tail.lstrip()
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        tail = tail.lstrip(None if density & 2 else '')
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        inline = inline or inline_fn(self)
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        if inline:
            head = head.rstrip()
            tail = tail.lstrip()
            usetab, sep = '', ''
        else:
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            usetab = tab if head else ''    # no indentation if tag is already omitted
            sep = '\n'
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        if self.children:
            content = []
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            for child in self.children:
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                subtree = child._tree_repr(tab, open_fn, close_fn, data_fn,
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                                           density, inline, inline_fn)
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                if subtree:
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                    st = [subtree] if inline else subtree.split('\n')
                    content.append((sep + usetab).join(s for s in st))
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            return head + usetab + (sep + usetab).join(content) + tail
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        res = self.content
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        if not inline and not head:
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            # strip whitespace for omitted non inline node, e.g. CharData in mixed elements
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            res = res.strip()
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        if density & 1 and res.find('\n') < 0:  # and head[0] == "<":
            # except for XML, add a gap between opening statement and content
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            gap = ' ' if not inline and head and head.rstrip()[-1:] != '>' else ''
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            return head.rstrip() + gap + data_fn(res) + tail.lstrip()
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        else:
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            return head + '\n'.join([usetab + data_fn(s) for s in res.split('\n')]) + tail
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    def as_sxpr(self, src: str = None,
                showerrors: bool = True,
                indentation: int = 2,
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                compact: bool = False) -> str:
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        """
        Returns content as S-expression, i.e. in lisp-like form.

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        Args:
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            src:  The source text or `None`. In case the source text is
                given the position of the element in the text will be
                reported as line and column.
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            showerrors: If True, error messages will be shown.
            indentation: The number of whitespaces for indentation
            compact:  If True, a compact representation is returned where
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                brackets are omitted and only the indentation indicates the
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                tree structure.
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        """

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        left_bracket, right_bracket, density = ('', '', 1) if compact else ('(', '\n)', 0)
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        lbreaks = linebreaks(src) if src else []  # type: List[int]
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        def opening(node) -> str:
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            """Returns the opening string for the representation of `node`."""
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            txt = [left_bracket, node.tag_name]
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            # s += " '(pos %i)" % node.add_pos
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            if hasattr(node, '_xml_attr'):
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                txt.extend(' `(%s "%s")' % (k, v) for k, v in node.attr.items())
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            if src:
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                line, col = line_col(lbreaks, node.pos)
                txt.append(" `(pos %i %i %i)" % (node.pos, line, col))
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            if showerrors and node.errors:
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                txt.append(" `(err `%s)" % ' '.join(str(err) for err in node.errors))
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            return "".join(txt) + '\n'
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        def closing(node) -> str:
            """Returns the closing string for the representation of `node`."""
            return right_bracket
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        def pretty(strg):
            """Encloses `strg` with the right kind of quotation marks."""
            return '"%s"' % strg if strg.find('"') < 0 \
                else "'%s'" % strg if strg.find("'") < 0 \
                else '"%s"' % strg.replace('"', r'\"')
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        return self._tree_repr(' ' * indentation, opening, closing, pretty, density=density)
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    def as_xml(self, src: str = None,
               showerrors: bool = True,
               indentation: int = 2,
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               inline_tags: Set[str] = set(),
               omit_tags: Set[str] = set(),
               empty_tags: Set[str] = set()) -> str:
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        """
        Returns content as XML-tree.

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        Args:
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            src:  The source text or `None`. In case the source text is
                given the position will also be reported as line and
                column.
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            showerrors: If True, error messages will be shown.
            indentation: The number of whitespaces for indentation
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            inline_tags:  A set of tag names, the content of which will always be written
                on a single line, unless it contains explicit line feeds ('\n').
            omit_tags:  A set of tags from which only the content will be printed, but
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                neither the opening tag nor its attr nor the closing tag. This
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                allows producing a mix of plain text and child tags in the output,
                which otherwise is not supported by the Node object, because it
                requires its content to be either a tuple of children or string content.
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            empty_tags:  A set of tags which shall be rendered as empty elements, e.g.
                "<empty/>" instead of "<empty><empty>".
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        """

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        def opening(node) -> str:
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            """Returns the opening string for the representation of `node`."""
            if node.tag_name in omit_tags:
                return ''
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            txt = ['<', node.tag_name]
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            has_reserved_attrs = hasattr(node, '_xml_attr') \
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                and any (r in node.attr for r in {'err', 'line', 'col'})
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            if hasattr(node, '_xml_attr'):
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                txt.extend(' %s="%s"' % (k, v) for k, v in node.attr.items())
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            if src and not has_reserved_attrs:
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                txt.append(' line="%i" col="%i"' % line_col(line_breaks, node.pos))
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            if showerrors and node.errors and not has_reserved_attrs:
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                txt.append(' err="%s"' % ''.join(str(err).replace('"', r'\"')
                                                 for err in node.errors))
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            if node.tag_name in empty_tags:
                assert not node.result, ("Node %s with content %s is not an empty element!" %
                                         (node.tag_name, str(node)))
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                ending = "/>\n" if not node.tag_name[0] == '?' else "?>\n"
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            else:
                ending = ">\n"
            return "".join(txt + [ending])
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        def closing(node):
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            """Returns the closing string for the representation of `node`."""
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            if node.tag_name in omit_tags or node.tag_name in empty_tags:
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                return ''
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            return ('\n</') + node.tag_name + '>'
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        def sanitizer(content: str) -> str:
            """Substitute "&", "<", ">" in XML-content by the respective entities."""
            content = RX_AMP.sub('&amp;', content)
            content = content.replace('<', '&lt;').replace('>', '&gt;')
            return content


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        def inlining(node):
            """Returns True, if `node`'s tag name is contained in `inline_tags`,
            thereby signalling that the children of this node shall not be
            printed on several lines to avoid unwanted gaps in the output.
            """
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            return node.tag_name in inline_tags \
                or (hasattr(node, '_xml_attr')
                    and node.attr.get('xml:space', 'default') == 'preserve')
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        line_breaks = linebreaks(src) if src else []
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        return self._tree_repr(' ' * indentation, opening, closing, sanitizer,
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                               density=1, inline_fn=inlining)
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    def select(self, match_function: Callable, include_root: bool = False, reverse: bool = False) \
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            -> Iterator['Node']:
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        """
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        Finds nodes in the tree that fulfill a given criterion.
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        `select` is a generator that yields all nodes for which the
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        given `match_function` evaluates to True. The tree is
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        traversed pre-order.

        See function `Node.select_by_tag` for some examples.
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        Args:
            match_function (function): A function  that takes as Node
                object as argument and returns True or False
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            include_root (bool): If False, only descendant nodes will be
                checked for a match.
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            reverse (bool): If True, the tree will be walked in reverse
                order, i.e. last children first.
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        Yields:
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            Node: All nodes of the tree for which
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            ``match_function(node)`` returns True
        """
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        if include_root and match_function(self):
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            yield self
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        child_iterator = reversed(self.children) if reverse else self.children
        for child in child_iterator:
            for node in child.select(match_function, True, reverse):
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                yield node
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    def select_by_tag(self, tag_names: Union[str, AbstractSet[str]],
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                      include_root: bool = False) -> Iterator['Node']:
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        """
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        Returns an iterator that runs through all descendants that have one
        of the given tag names.

        Examples::
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            >>> tree = parse_sxpr('(a (b "X") (X (c "d")) (e (X "F")))')
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            >>> list(flatten_sxpr(item.as_sxpr()) for item in tree.select_by_tag("X", False))
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            ['(X (c "d"))', '(X "F")']
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            >>> list(flatten_sxpr(item.as_sxpr()) for item in tree.select_by_tag({"X", "b"}, False))
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            ['(b "X")', '(X (c "d"))', '(X "F")']
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            >>> any(tree.select_by_tag('a', False))
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            False
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            >>> list(flatten_sxpr(item.as_sxpr()) for item in tree.select_by_tag('a', True))
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            ['(a (b "X") (X (c "d")) (e (X "F")))']
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            >>> flatten_sxpr(next(tree.select_by_tag("X", False)).as_sxpr())
            '(X (c "d"))'
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        Args:
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            tag_name(set): A tag name or set of tag names that is being
                searched for
            include_root (bool): If False, only descendant nodes will be
                checked for a match.
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        Yields:
            Node: All nodes which have a given tag name.
        """
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        if isinstance(tag_names, str):
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            tag_names = frozenset({tag_names})
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        return self.select(lambda node: node.tag_name in tag_names, include_root)
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    def pick(self, tag_names: Union[str, Set[str]]) -> Optional['Node']:
        """
        Picks the first descendant with one of the given tag_names.

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        This function is mostly just syntactic sugar for
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        ``next(node.select_by_tag(tag_names, False))``. However, rather than
        raising a StopIterationError if no descendant with the given tag-name
        exists, it returns None.
        """
        try:
            return next(self.select_by_tag(tag_names, False))
        except StopIteration:
            return None


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    def tree_size(self) -> int:
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        """
        Recursively counts the number of nodes in the tree including the root node.
        """
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        return sum(child.tree_size() for child in self.children) + 1


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ZOMBIE_NODE = Node(ZOMBIE_PARSER, '')


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class RootNode(Node):
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    """TODO: Add Documentation!!!
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        all_errors (list):  A list of all errors that have occured so far during
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                processing (i.e. parsing, AST-transformation, compiling)
                of this tree.
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        error_flag (int):  the highest warning or error level of all errors
                that occurred.
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    """
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    def __init__(self, node: Optional[Node] = None):
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        super().__init__(ZOMBIE_PARSER, '')
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        self.all_errors = []  # type: List[Error]
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        self.error_flag = 0
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        if node is not None:
            self.swallow(node)
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        # customization for XML-Representation
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        self.inline_tags = set()  # type: Set[str]
        self.omit_tags = set()  # type: Set[str]
        self.empty_tags = set()  # type: Set[str]
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    def __deepcopy__(self, memodict={}):
        duplicate = self.__class__(None)
        if self.children:
            duplicate.children = copy.deepcopy(self.children)
            duplicate._result = duplicate.children
        else:
            duplicate.children = NoChildren
            duplicate._result = self._result
        duplicate.errors = copy.deepcopy(self.errors) if self.errors else []
        duplicate._pos = self._pos
        duplicate._len = self._len
        if hasattr(self, '_xml_attr'):
            duplicate._xml_attr = copy.deepcopy(self._xml_attr)
        duplicate.all_errors = copy.deepcopy(self.all_errors)
        duplicate.error_flag = self.error_flag
        duplicate.inline_tags = self.inline_tags
        duplicate.omit_tags = self.omit_tags
        duplicate.empty_tags = self.empty_tags
        duplicate.parser = self.parser
        return duplicate


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    def swallow(self, node: Node) -> 'RootNode':
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        """
        Put `self` in the place of `node` by copying all its data.
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        Returns self.

        This is done by the parse.Grammar object after
        parsing has finished, so that the Grammar object always
        returns a syntax tree rooted in a RootNode object.

        It is possible to add errors to a RootNode object, before it
        has actually swallowed the root of the syntax tree.
        """
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        self._result = node._result
        self.children = node.children
        self._len = node._len
        self._pos = node._pos
        self.parser = node.parser
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        if hasattr(node, '_xml_attr'):
            self._xml_attr = node._xml_attr
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        self._content = node._content
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        return self
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    def add_error(self, node: Node, error: Error) -> 'RootNode':
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        """
        Adds an Error object to the tree, locating it at a specific node.
        """
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        self.all_errors.append(error)
        self.error_flag = max(self.error_flag, error.code)
        node.errors.append(error)
        return self

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    def new_error(self,
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                  node: Node,
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                  message: str,
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