sensordatastore.cpp 31.8 KB
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//================================================================================
// Name        : sensordatastore.cpp
// Author      : Axel Auweter
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// Contact     : info@dcdb.it
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// Copyright   : Leibniz Supercomputing Centre
// Description : C++ API implementation for inserting and querying DCDB sensor data.
//================================================================================

//================================================================================
// This file is part of DCDB (DataCenter DataBase)
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// Copyright (C) 2011-2019 Leibniz Supercomputing Centre
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//
// This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
// modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
// License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
// version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
//
// This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
// Lesser General Public License for more details.
//
// You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
// License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
// Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
//================================================================================
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/**
 * @page libdcdb libdcdb
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 * The libdcdb library is a dynamic runtime library providing
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 * functions to initialize and access the DCDB data store. It
 * is being used by the CollectAgent to handle insertion of
 * data and can be used by tools responsible for data analysis.
 *
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 * Its main class is the DCDB::SensorDataStore class which
 * provides functions to connect to the data store, initialize
 * an empty data base and to retrieve data.
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 *
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 * For its internal handling, DCDB::SensorDataStore relies on
 * the DCDB::SensorDataStoreImpl class (which hides all private
 * member functions belonging to the SensorDataStore class from
 * the header that is used by programmers who link against this
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 * library). Raw database functionality is abstracted into the
 * CassandraBackend class (to easy switching to other
 * key-value style databases in the future).
 *
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 * To use the library in your client application, simply
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 * include the sensordatastore.h header file and initialize
 * an object of the SensorDataStore class.
 */

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#include <string>
#include <iostream>
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#include <cstdint>
#include <cinttypes>
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#include "cassandra.h"
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#include "dcdb/sensordatastore.h"
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#include "sensordatastore_internal.h"
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#include "dcdb/connection.h"
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#include "dcdbglobals.h"

#include "dcdbendian.h"
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using namespace DCDB;

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SensorDataStoreReading::SensorDataStoreReading() {
}

SensorDataStoreReading::SensorDataStoreReading(SensorId& sid, uint64_t ts, int64_t value) {
  this->sensorId = sid;
  this->timeStamp = TimeStamp(ts);
  this->value = value;
}

SensorDataStoreReading::~SensorDataStoreReading() {
}

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/**
 * @details
 * Since we want high-performance inserts, we prepare the
 * insert CQL query in advance and only bind it on the actual
 * insert.
 */
void SensorDataStoreImpl::prepareInsert(uint64_t ttl)
{
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    CassError rc = CASS_OK;
    CassFuture* future = NULL;
    const char* query;
    
    /*
    * Free the old prepared if necessary.
    */
    if (preparedInsert) {
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      cass_prepared_free(preparedInsert);
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    }
    
    query = "INSERT INTO dcdb.sensordata (sid, ws, ts, value) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?) USING TTL ? ;";
    future = cass_session_prepare(session, query);
    cass_future_wait(future);
    
    rc = cass_future_error_code(future);
    if (rc != CASS_OK) {
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      connection->printError(future);
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    } else {
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      preparedInsert = cass_future_get_prepared(future);
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    }
    cass_future_free(future);
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    // Preparing the insert statement without a TTL clause
    if (preparedInsert_noTTL) {
        cass_prepared_free(preparedInsert_noTTL);
    }
    
    query = "INSERT INTO dcdb.sensordata (sid, ws, ts, value) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?);";
    future = cass_session_prepare(session, query);
    cass_future_wait(future);
    
    rc = cass_future_error_code(future);
    if (rc != CASS_OK) {
        connection->printError(future);
    } else {
        preparedInsert_noTTL = cass_future_get_prepared(future);
    }
    cass_future_free(future);
        
    defaultTTL = ttl;
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * To insert a sensor reading, the Rsvd field of the SensorId must
 * be filled with a time component that ensures that the maximum
 * number of 2^32 columns per key is not exceeded while still
 * allowing relatively easy retrieval of data.
 *
 * We achieve this by using a "week-stamp" (i.e. number of weeks
 * since Unix epoch) within the Rsvd field of the SensorId before
 * calling the Cassandra Backend to do the raw insert.
 *
 * Applications should not call this function directly, but
 * use the insert function provided by the SensorDataStore class.
 */
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void SensorDataStoreImpl::insert(SensorId* sid, uint64_t ts, int64_t value, int64_t ttl)
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{
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#if 0
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  std::cout << "Inserting@SensorDataStoreImpl (" << sid->raw[0] << " " << sid->raw[1] << ", " << ts << ", " << value << ")" << std::endl;
#endif

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  /* Calculate and insert week number */
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  uint16_t week = ts / 604800000000000;
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  sid->setRsvd(week);
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  int64_t ttlReal = (ttl<0 ? defaultTTL : ttl);
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  CassStatement* statement = cass_prepared_bind(ttlReal<=0 ? preparedInsert_noTTL : preparedInsert);
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  cass_statement_bind_string_by_name(statement, "sid", sid->getId().c_str());
  cass_statement_bind_int16_by_name(statement, "ws", week);
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  cass_statement_bind_int64_by_name(statement, "ts", ts);
  cass_statement_bind_int64_by_name(statement, "value", value);
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  if(ttlReal>0)
      cass_statement_bind_int32(statement, 4, ttlReal);
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  CassFuture* future = cass_session_execute(session, statement);
  cass_statement_free(statement);
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  /* Don't wait for the future, just free it to make the call truly asynchronous */
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  cass_future_free(future);
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}

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void SensorDataStoreImpl::insert(SensorDataStoreReading& reading, int64_t ttl) {
  insert(&reading.sensorId, reading.timeStamp.getRaw(), reading.value, ttl);
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}

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void SensorDataStoreImpl::insertBatch(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& readings, int64_t ttl) {
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  CassBatch* batch = cass_batch_new(CASS_BATCH_TYPE_UNLOGGED);
  
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  int64_t ttlReal = (ttl<0 ? defaultTTL : ttl);
  
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  for (auto r: readings) {
    /* Calculate and insert week number */
    uint16_t week = r.timeStamp.getRaw() / 604800000000000;
    r.sensorId.setRsvd(week);
    
    /* Add insert statement to batch */
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    CassStatement* statement = cass_prepared_bind(ttlReal<=0 ? preparedInsert_noTTL : preparedInsert);
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    cass_statement_bind_string_by_name(statement, "sid", r.sensorId.getId().c_str());
    cass_statement_bind_int16_by_name(statement, "ws", week);
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    cass_statement_bind_int64_by_name(statement, "ts", r.timeStamp.getRaw());
    cass_statement_bind_int64_by_name(statement, "value", r.value);
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    if(ttlReal>0)
        cass_statement_bind_int32(statement, 4, ttlReal);
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    cass_batch_add_statement(batch, statement);
    cass_statement_free(statement);
  }
  
  /* Execute batch */
  CassFuture *future = cass_session_execute_batch(session, batch);
  cass_batch_free(batch);
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  if(debugLog)
    cass_future_set_callback(future, DataStoreImpl_on_result, NULL);
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  /* Don't wait for the future, just free it to make the call truly asynchronous */
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  cass_future_free(future);
}

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/**
 * @details
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 * This function updates the prepared statement for inserts
 * with the new TTL value.
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 */
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void SensorDataStoreImpl::setTTL(uint64_t ttl)
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{
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  prepareInsert(ttl);
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}

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/**
 * @brief Enables or disables logging of Cassandra insert errors
 * @param dl        true to enable logging, false otherwise
 */
void SensorDataStoreImpl::setDebugLog(bool dl)
{
    debugLog = dl;
}

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/**
 * @details
 * This function issues a regular query to the data store
 * and creates a SensorDataStoreReading object for each
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 * entry which is stored in the result list.
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 */
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void SensorDataStoreImpl::query(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& result, SensorId& sid, TimeStamp& start, TimeStamp& end, QueryAggregate aggregate) {
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  CassError rc = CASS_OK;
  CassStatement* statement = NULL;
  CassFuture *future = NULL;
  const CassPrepared* prepared = nullptr;
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  std::string query = std::string("SELECT ts,");
  if (aggregate == AGGREGATE_NONE) {
    query.append("value");
  } else {
    query.append(AggregateString[aggregate] + std::string("(value) as value"));
  }
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  query.append(" FROM " KEYSPACE_NAME "." CF_SENSORDATA " WHERE sid = ? AND ws = ? AND ts >= ? AND ts <= ? ;");
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  future = cass_session_prepare(session, query.c_str());
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  cass_future_wait(future);

  rc = cass_future_error_code(future);
  if (rc != CASS_OK) {
    connection->printError(future);
    cass_future_free(future);
    return;
  }

  prepared = cass_future_get_prepared(future);
  cass_future_free(future);
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#if 0
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  std::cout << "Query: " << query << std::endl << "sid: " << sid.toString() << " ts1: " << start.getRaw() << " ts2: " << end.getRaw() << std::endl;
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#endif
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  statement = cass_prepared_bind(prepared);
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  cass_statement_set_paging_size(statement, PAGING_SIZE);
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  cass_statement_bind_string(statement, 0, sid.getId().c_str());
  cass_statement_bind_int16(statement, 1, sid.getRsvd());
  cass_statement_bind_int64(statement, 2, start.getRaw());
  cass_statement_bind_int64(statement, 3, end.getRaw());
  
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  bool morePages = false;
  do {
      future = cass_session_execute(session, statement);
      cass_future_wait(future);
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      if (cass_future_error_code(future) == CASS_OK) {
          const CassResult *cresult = cass_future_get_result(future);
          CassIterator *rows = cass_iterator_from_result(cresult);
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          SensorDataStoreReading entry;
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          while (cass_iterator_next(rows)) {
              const CassRow *row = cass_iterator_get_row(rows);
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              cass_int64_t ts, value;
              cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "ts"), &ts);
              cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "value"), &value);
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              entry.sensorId = sid;
              entry.timeStamp = (uint64_t) ts;
              entry.value = (int64_t) value;
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              result.push_back(entry);
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#if 0
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              if (localtime) {
                  t.convertToLocal();
              }
              if (raw) {
                  std::cout << sensorName << "," << std::dec << t.getRaw() << "," << std::dec << value << std::endl;
              }
              else {
                  std::cout << sensorName << "," << t.getString() << "," << std::dec << value << std::endl;
              }
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#endif
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          }
          
          if((morePages = cass_result_has_more_pages(cresult)))
              cass_statement_set_paging_state(statement, cresult);

          cass_iterator_free(rows);
          cass_result_free(cresult);
      } else {
          morePages = false;
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      }
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      cass_future_free(future);
  } 
  while(morePages);
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  cass_statement_free(statement);
  cass_prepared_free(prepared);
}

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/**
 * @details
 * This function issues a regular query to the data store,
 * queries an arbitrary number of sensors simultaneously
 * and creates a SensorDataStoreReading object for each
 * entry which is stored in the result list.
 */
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void SensorDataStoreImpl::query(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& result, std::list<SensorId>& sids, TimeStamp& start, TimeStamp& end, QueryAggregate aggregate, bool storeSids) {
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    if(sids.empty())
        return;
    
    CassError rc = CASS_OK;
    CassStatement* statement = NULL;
    CassFuture *future = NULL;
    const CassPrepared* prepared = nullptr;

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    std::string query = std::string(storeSids ? "SELECT sid,ts," : "SELECT ts,");
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    if (aggregate == AGGREGATE_NONE) {
        query.append("value");
    } else {
        query.append(AggregateString[aggregate] + std::string("(value) as value"));
    }
    query.append(" FROM " KEYSPACE_NAME "." CF_SENSORDATA " WHERE sid in ? AND ws = ? AND ts >= ? AND ts <= ? ;");
    future = cass_session_prepare(session, query.c_str());
    cass_future_wait(future);

    rc = cass_future_error_code(future);
    if (rc != CASS_OK) {
        connection->printError(future);
        cass_future_free(future);
        return;
    }

    prepared = cass_future_get_prepared(future);
    cass_future_free(future);

    auto sidIt = sids.begin();
    size_t sidCtr = 0;

    while(sidIt != sids.end()) {
        CassCollection *cassList = cass_collection_new(CASS_COLLECTION_TYPE_LIST, sids.size());

        sidCtr = 0;
        // Breaking up the original list of sids in chunks
        while(sidIt != sids.end() && sidCtr < QUERY_GROUP_LIMIT) {
            cass_collection_append_string(cassList, sidIt->getId().c_str());
            ++sidIt;
            ++sidCtr;
        }

        statement = cass_prepared_bind(prepared);
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        cass_statement_set_paging_size(statement, PAGING_SIZE);
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        cass_statement_bind_collection(statement, 0, cassList);
        cass_statement_bind_int16(statement, 1, sids.front().getRsvd());
        cass_statement_bind_int64(statement, 2, start.getRaw());
        cass_statement_bind_int64(statement, 3, end.getRaw());

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        bool morePages = false;
        do {
            future = cass_session_execute(session, statement);
            cass_future_wait(future);
    
            if (cass_future_error_code(future) == CASS_OK) {
                const CassResult *cresult = cass_future_get_result(future);
                CassIterator *rows = cass_iterator_from_result(cresult);
                SensorDataStoreReading entry;
                cass_int64_t ts, value;
                const char *name;
                size_t name_len;
    
                while (cass_iterator_next(rows)) {
                    const CassRow *row = cass_iterator_get_row(rows);
    
                    cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "ts"), &ts);
                    cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "value"), &value);
                    entry.timeStamp = (uint64_t) ts;
                    entry.value = (int64_t) value;
                    
                    if(storeSids) {
                        cass_value_get_string(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "sid"), &name, &name_len);
                        entry.sensorId = SensorId(std::string(name, name_len));
                    }
                    
                    result.push_back(entry);
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#if 0
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                    if (localtime) {
                      t.convertToLocal();
                  }
                  if (raw) {
                      std::cout << sensorName << "," << std::dec << t.getRaw() << "," << std::dec << value << std::endl;
                  }
                  else {
                      std::cout << sensorName << "," << t.getString() << "," << std::dec << value << std::endl;
                  }
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#endif
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                }
    
                if((morePages = cass_result_has_more_pages(cresult)))
                    cass_statement_set_paging_state(statement, cresult);
                
                cass_iterator_free(rows);
                cass_result_free(cresult);
            } else {
                morePages = false;
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            }
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            cass_future_free(future);

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        }
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        while(morePages);
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        cass_statement_free(statement);
        cass_collection_free(cassList);
    }
    
    cass_prepared_free(prepared);
}

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/**
 * @details
 * This function performs a fuzzy query on the datastore,
 * picking a single sensor readings that is closest to
 * the one given as input
 */
void SensorDataStoreImpl::fuzzyQuery(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& result, SensorId& sid, TimeStamp& ts, uint64_t tol_ns) {
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    /* Find the readings before time t */
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    CassError rc = CASS_OK;
    CassStatement* statement = NULL;
    CassFuture *future = NULL;
    const CassPrepared* prepared = nullptr;
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    const char* queryBefore = "SELECT sid,ts,value FROM " KEYSPACE_NAME "." CF_SENSORDATA " WHERE sid = ? AND ws = ? AND ts <= ? ORDER BY ws DESC, ts DESC LIMIT 1";

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    future = cass_session_prepare(session, queryBefore);
    cass_future_wait(future);

    rc = cass_future_error_code(future);
    if (rc != CASS_OK) {
        connection->printError(future);
        cass_future_free(future);
        return;
    }

    prepared = cass_future_get_prepared(future);
    cass_future_free(future);

    statement = cass_prepared_bind(prepared);
    cass_statement_bind_string(statement, 0, sid.getId().c_str());
    cass_statement_bind_int16(statement, 1, sid.getRsvd());
    cass_statement_bind_int64(statement, 2, ts.getRaw());

    future = cass_session_execute(session, statement);
    cass_future_wait(future);
    SensorDataStoreReading r;
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    if (cass_future_error_code(future) == CASS_OK) {
        const CassResult* cresult = cass_future_get_result(future);
        CassIterator* rows = cass_iterator_from_result(cresult);
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        while (cass_iterator_next(rows)) {
            const CassRow* row = cass_iterator_get_row(rows);

            cass_int64_t tsInt, value;
            cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "ts"), &tsInt);
            cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "value"), &value);

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            if(ts.getRaw() - (uint64_t)tsInt < tol_ns) {
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                r.sensorId = sid;
                r.timeStamp = (uint64_t) tsInt;
                r.value = (int64_t) value;
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                result.push_back(r);
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            }
        }
        cass_iterator_free(rows);
        cass_result_free(cresult);
    }

    cass_statement_free(statement);
    cass_future_free(future);
    cass_prepared_free(prepared);
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}
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/**
 * @details
 * This function performs a fuzzy query on the datastore,
 * picking readings from a set of sensors that are closest to
 * the timestamp given as input
 */
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void SensorDataStoreImpl::fuzzyQuery(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& result, std::list<SensorId>& sids, TimeStamp& ts, uint64_t tol_ns, bool storeSids) {
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    if(sids.empty())
        return;

    /* Find the readings before time t */
    CassError rc = CASS_OK;
    CassStatement *statement = NULL;
    CassFuture *future = NULL;
    const CassPrepared *prepared = nullptr;
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    const char *queryBefore;
    if(storeSids) 
        queryBefore = "SELECT sid,ts,value FROM " KEYSPACE_NAME "." CF_SENSORDATA " WHERE sid in ? AND ws = ? AND ts <= ? ORDER BY ws DESC, ts DESC PER PARTITION LIMIT 1";
    else
        queryBefore = "SELECT ts,value FROM " KEYSPACE_NAME "." CF_SENSORDATA " WHERE sid in ? AND ws = ? AND ts <= ? ORDER BY ws DESC, ts DESC PER PARTITION LIMIT 1";
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    future = cass_session_prepare(session, queryBefore);
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    cass_future_wait(future);

    rc = cass_future_error_code(future);
    if (rc != CASS_OK) {
        connection->printError(future);
        cass_future_free(future);
        return;
    }

    prepared = cass_future_get_prepared(future);
    cass_future_free(future);
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    auto sidIt = sids.begin();
    size_t sidCtr = 0;
    
    while(sidIt != sids.end()) {
        CassCollection *cassList = cass_collection_new(CASS_COLLECTION_TYPE_LIST, QUERY_GROUP_LIMIT);
        sidCtr = 0;
        // Breaking up the original list of sids in chunks
        while(sidIt != sids.end() && sidCtr < QUERY_GROUP_LIMIT) {
            cass_collection_append_string(cassList, sidIt->getId().c_str());
            ++sidIt;
            ++sidCtr;
        }
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        statement = cass_prepared_bind(prepared);
        cass_statement_set_paging_size(statement, -1);
        cass_statement_bind_collection(statement, 0, cassList);
        cass_statement_bind_int16(statement, 1, sids.front().getRsvd());
        cass_statement_bind_int64(statement, 2, ts.getRaw());
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        future = cass_session_execute(session, statement);
        cass_future_wait(future);
        SensorDataStoreReading r;
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        if (cass_future_error_code(future) == CASS_OK) {
            const CassResult *cresult = cass_future_get_result(future);
            CassIterator *rows = cass_iterator_from_result(cresult);
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            cass_int64_t tsInt, value;
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            const char *name;
            size_t name_len;

            while (cass_iterator_next(rows)) {
                const CassRow *row = cass_iterator_get_row(rows);

                cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "ts"), &tsInt);
                cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "value"), &value);
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                if (ts.getRaw() - (uint64_t) tsInt < tol_ns) {
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                    if(storeSids) {
                        cass_value_get_string(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "sid"), &name, &name_len);
                        r.sensorId = SensorId(std::string(name, name_len));
                    }
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                    r.timeStamp = (uint64_t) tsInt;
                    r.value = (int64_t) value;
                    result.push_back(r);
                }
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            }
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            cass_iterator_free(rows);
            cass_result_free(cresult);
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        }

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        cass_statement_free(statement);
        cass_future_free(future);
        cass_collection_free(cassList);
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    }
    
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    cass_prepared_free(prepared);
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * This function issues a regular query to the data store
 * and calls cbFunc for every reading.
 */
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void SensorDataStoreImpl::queryCB(SensorDataStore::QueryCbFunc cbFunc, void* userData, SensorId& sid, TimeStamp& start, TimeStamp& end, QueryAggregate aggregate)
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{
  CassError rc = CASS_OK;
  CassStatement* statement = NULL;
  CassFuture *future = NULL;
  const CassPrepared* prepared = nullptr;
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  std::string query = std::string("SELECT ts,");
  if (aggregate == AGGREGATE_NONE) {
    query.append("value");
  } else {
    query.append(AggregateString[aggregate] + std::string("(value) as value"));
  }
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  query.append(" FROM " KEYSPACE_NAME "." CF_SENSORDATA " WHERE sid = ? AND ws = ? AND ts >= ? AND ts <= ? ;");
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  future = cass_session_prepare(session, query.c_str());
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  cass_future_wait(future);

  rc = cass_future_error_code(future);
  if (rc != CASS_OK) {
    connection->printError(future);
    cass_future_free(future);
    return;
  }

  prepared = cass_future_get_prepared(future);
  cass_future_free(future);
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  statement = cass_prepared_bind(prepared);
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  cass_statement_bind_string(statement, 0, sid.getId().c_str());
  cass_statement_bind_int16(statement, 1, sid.getRsvd());
  cass_statement_bind_int64(statement, 2, start.getRaw());
  cass_statement_bind_int64(statement, 3, end.getRaw());
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  future = cass_session_execute(session, statement);
  cass_future_wait(future);

  if (cass_future_error_code(future) == CASS_OK) {
      const CassResult* cresult = cass_future_get_result(future);
      CassIterator* rows = cass_iterator_from_result(cresult);

      SensorDataStoreReading entry;

      while (cass_iterator_next(rows)) {
          const CassRow* row = cass_iterator_get_row(rows);

          cass_int64_t ts, value;
          cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "ts"), &ts);
          cass_value_get_int64(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "value"), &value);

          entry.sensorId = sid;
          entry.timeStamp = (uint64_t)ts;
          entry.value = (int64_t)value;

          cbFunc(entry, userData);
      }
      cass_iterator_free(rows);
      cass_result_free(cresult);
  }

  cass_statement_free(statement);
  cass_future_free(future);
  cass_prepared_free(prepared);
}

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/**
 * @details
 * This function generates an integrated value of the time series
 * by first querying for the result set list using query() and then
 * summing up the result.
 */
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SDSQueryResult SensorDataStoreImpl::querySum(int64_t& result, SensorId& sid, TimeStamp& start, TimeStamp& end)
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{
  std::list<SensorDataStoreReading> queryResult;

  /* Issue a standard query */
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  query(queryResult, sid, start, end, AGGREGATE_NONE);
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  /* Check if at least 2 readings in result */
  if (queryResult.size() < 2)
    return SDS_EMPTYSET;

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  /* Integrate the result */
  result = 0;

  SensorDataStoreReading prev;
  for (std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>::iterator it = queryResult.begin(); it != queryResult.end(); it++) {
      if (!(it == queryResult.begin())) {
          SensorDataStoreReading cur = *it;

          /* Calculate average between two readings */
          int64_t avg = (cur.value + prev.value) / 2;

          /* Calculate time difference */
          uint64_t dt = cur.timeStamp.getRaw() - prev.timeStamp.getRaw();

          /* Sum up (with lousy attempt to keep it numerically stable - should probably use double instead) */
          if (dt > 10000000000) {
              /* dt > 10s => convert dt to s first */
              dt /= 1000000000;
              result += avg * dt;
          }
          else {
              /* dt < 10s => multiply first */
              avg *= dt;
              result += avg / 1000000000;
          }
      }
      prev = *it;
  }
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  return SDS_OK;
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * This function deletes all data from the sensordata store
 * that is older than weekStamp-1 weeks.
 */
void SensorDataStoreImpl::truncBeforeWeek(uint16_t weekStamp)
{
  /* List of rows that should be deleted */
  std::list<SensorId> deleteList;

  /* Query the database to collect all rows */
  CassError rc = CASS_OK;
  CassStatement* statement = nullptr;
  CassFuture* future = nullptr;
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  const char* query = "SELECT DISTINCT sid,ws FROM " KEYSPACE_NAME "." CF_SENSORDATA ";";
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  statement = cass_statement_new(query, 0);
  future = cass_session_execute(session, statement);
  cass_future_wait(future);

  rc = cass_future_error_code(future);
  if (rc != CASS_OK) {
      connection->printError(future);
      return;
  }

  const CassResult* result = cass_future_get_result(future);
  cass_future_free(future);

  CassIterator* iterator = cass_iterator_from_result(result);

  /* Iterate over all rows and filter out those, that are too old */
  while (cass_iterator_next(iterator)) {
      const CassRow* row = cass_iterator_get_row(iterator);
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      const char* res;
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      size_t       res_len;
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      int16_t     res_ws;
      cass_value_get_string(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "sid"), &res, &res_len);
      cass_value_get_int16(cass_row_get_column_by_name(row, "ws"), &res_ws);
      
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      SensorId sensor;
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      std::string id(res, res_len);
      sensor.setId(id);
      sensor.setRsvd(res_ws);
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      /* Check if the sensorId's rsvd field is smaller than the weekStamp */
      if (sensor.getRsvd() < weekStamp) {
          deleteList.push_back(sensor);
      }
  }
  cass_result_free(result);
  cass_iterator_free(iterator);
  cass_statement_free(statement);

  /* Now iterate over all entries in the deleteList and delete them */
  for (std::list<SensorId>::iterator it = deleteList.begin(); it != deleteList.end(); it++) {
      deleteRow(*it);
  }
}

/**
 * @details
 * Deleting entire rows is rather efficient compared to deleting individual columns.
 */
void SensorDataStoreImpl::deleteRow(SensorId& sid)
{
  CassError rc = CASS_OK;
  CassStatement* statement = NULL;
  CassFuture *future = NULL;
  const CassPrepared* prepared = nullptr;
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  const char* query = "DELETE FROM " KEYSPACE_NAME "." CF_SENSORDATA " WHERE sid = ? and ws = ?;";
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  future = cass_session_prepare(session, query);
  cass_future_wait(future);

  rc = cass_future_error_code(future);
  if (rc != CASS_OK) {
    connection->printError(future);
    cass_future_free(future);
    return;
  }

  prepared = cass_future_get_prepared(future);
  cass_future_free(future);
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  statement = cass_prepared_bind(prepared);
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  cass_statement_bind_string(statement, 0, sid.getId().c_str());
  cass_statement_bind_int16(statement, 1, sid.getRsvd());
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  future = cass_session_execute(session, statement);
  cass_future_wait(future);

  cass_statement_free(statement);
  cass_future_free(future);
  cass_prepared_free(prepared);
}

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/**
 * @details
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 * This constructor sets the internal connection variable to
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 * the externally provided Connection object and also
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 * retrieves the CassSession pointer of the connection.
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 */
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SensorDataStoreImpl::SensorDataStoreImpl(Connection* conn)
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{
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  connection = conn;
  session = connection->getSessionHandle();
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  debugLog = false;
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  defaultTTL = 0;
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  preparedInsert = nullptr;
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  preparedInsert_noTTL = nullptr;
  prepareInsert(defaultTTL);
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}

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/**
 * @details
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 * Due to the simplicity of the class, the destructor is left empty.
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 */
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SensorDataStoreImpl::~SensorDataStoreImpl()
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{
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  connection = nullptr;
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  session = nullptr;
  if (preparedInsert) {
      cass_prepared_free(preparedInsert);
  }
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  if (preparedInsert_noTTL) {
      cass_prepared_free(preparedInsert_noTTL);
  }
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * Instead of doing the actual work, this function simply
 * forwards to the insert function of the SensorDataStoreImpl
 * class.
 */
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void SensorDataStore::insert(SensorId* sid, uint64_t ts, int64_t value, int64_t ttl)
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{
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    impl->insert(sid, ts, value, ttl);
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}

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void SensorDataStore::insert(SensorDataStoreReading& reading, int64_t ttl)
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{
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  impl->insert(reading, ttl);
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}

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void SensorDataStore::insertBatch(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& readings, int64_t ttl) {
  impl->insertBatch(readings, ttl);
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}

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/**
 * @details
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 * Instead of doing the actual work, this function simply
 * forwards to the insert function of the SensorDataStoreImpl
 * class.
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 */
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void SensorDataStore::setTTL(uint64_t ttl)
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{
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    impl->setTTL(ttl);
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}

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/**
 * @brief Enables or disables logging of Cassandra insert errors
 * @param dl        true to enable logging, false otherwise
 */
void SensorDataStore::setDebugLog(bool dl)
{
    impl->setDebugLog(dl);
}

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/**
 * @details
 * Instead of doing the actual work, this function simply
 * forwards to the insert function of the SensorDataStoreImpl
 * class.
 */
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void SensorDataStore::query(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& result, SensorId& sid, TimeStamp& start, TimeStamp& end, QueryAggregate aggregate)
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{
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    impl->query(result, sid, start, end, aggregate);
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * Instead of doing the actual work, this function simply
 * forwards to the insert function of the SensorDataStoreImpl
 * class.
 */
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void SensorDataStore::query(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& result, std::list<SensorId>& sids, TimeStamp& start, TimeStamp& end, QueryAggregate aggregate, bool storeSids)
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{
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    impl->query(result, sids, start, end, aggregate, storeSids);
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * Instead of doing the actual work, this function simply
 * forwards to the insert function of the SensorDataStoreImpl
 * class.
 */
void SensorDataStore::fuzzyQuery(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& result, SensorId& sid, TimeStamp& ts, uint64_t tol_ns) {
    impl->fuzzyQuery(result, sid, ts, tol_ns);
}

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/**
 * @details
 * Instead of doing the actual work, this function simply
 * forwards to the insert function of the SensorDataStoreImpl
 * class.
 */
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void SensorDataStore::fuzzyQuery(std::list<SensorDataStoreReading>& result, std::list<SensorId>& sids, TimeStamp& ts, uint64_t tol_ns, bool storeSids) {
    impl->fuzzyQuery(result, sids, ts, tol_ns, storeSids);
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * Instead of doing the actual work, this function simply
 * forwards to the insert function of the SensorDataStoreImpl
 * class.
 */
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void SensorDataStore::queryCB(SensorDataStore::QueryCbFunc cbFunc, void* userData, SensorId& sid, TimeStamp& start, TimeStamp& end, QueryAggregate aggregate)
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{
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    return impl->queryCB(cbFunc, userData, sid, start, end, aggregate);
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * Instead of doing the actual work, this function simply
 * forwards to the insert function of the SensorDataStoreImpl
 * class.
 */
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SDSQueryResult SensorDataStore::querySum(int64_t& result, SensorId& sid, TimeStamp& start, TimeStamp& end)
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{
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    return impl->querySum(result, sid, start, end);
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * Instead of doing the actual work, this function simply
 * forwards to the insert function of the SensorDataStoreImpl
 * class.
 */
void SensorDataStore::truncBeforeWeek(uint16_t weekStamp)
{
    return impl->truncBeforeWeek(weekStamp);
}

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/**
 * @details
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 * This constructor allocates the implementation class which
 * holds the actual implementation of the class functionality.
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SensorDataStore::SensorDataStore(Connection* conn)
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{
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}

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/**
 * @details
 * The SensorDataStore desctructor deallocates the
 * SensorDataStoreImpl and CassandraBackend objects.
 */
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SensorDataStore::~SensorDataStore()
{
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  /* Clean up... */
  if (impl)
    delete impl;
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}