What is a group?
We consider a group as an aggregation of persons who stay together while moving. They move at approximately the same speed towards the same goal.
-- G. Köster • F. Treml • M. Seitz -- Validation of Crowd Models Including Social Groups (koster-2014)
- At most four or five persons
- All individuals in the group move towards the same goal.
- Members of a group stay together. Permanent separation of a member from the rest of the group may occur but only in extreme situations.
- All individuals in the group move with the same speed, except for temporal variations caused, for example, by avoiding obstacles and collisions with others.
- The (cooperative) group slows down when a member stays behind.
- Small groups have a basic spatial structure that stays relatively unchanged if walking across a free space, but can be temporarily deformed by external influences such as the presence of a crowd, oncoming traffic or obstacles: They walk abreast.
- Large groups divide into smaller communication groups of up to four pedestrians that are formed in a way to facilitate communication within the subgroups.
- The whole group stays loosely together, but – due to lack of substantial evidence – no formation among the subgroups is assumed at this point.
- seitz-2014: Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton
- koster-2011b: On modeling the influence of group formations in a crowd
- koster-2014: Validation of Crowd Models Including Social Groups